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These findings suggest icariin's potential as an alternative treatment for ketogenic diet-induced bone loss.

These findings suggest icariin's potential as an alternative treatment for ketogenic diet-induced bone loss.

PMID: 

J Orthop Surg Res. 2024 Feb 7 ;19(1):127. Epub 2024 Feb 7. PMID: 38326818

Abstract Title: 

Icariin promotes bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells osteogenic differentiation via the mTOR/autophagy pathway to improve ketogenic diet-associated osteoporosis.

Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: Icariin, a traditional Chinese medicine, has demonstrated anti-osteoporotic properties in ovariectomized mice. However, its effectiveness in preventing bone loss induced by ketogenic diet (KD), which mimics osteoporosis in human, remains unexplored. This study aims to investigate icariin's impact on KD-induced bone loss in mice.METHODS: Thirty mice were divided into: sham, KD, and KD + icariin groups. Post a 12-week intervention, evaluation including bone microstructures, serum concentrations of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and femoral tissue expression levels of osteocalcin (OCN) and TRAP. The expression levels of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), ALP, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), phosphorylated mTOR (p-mTOR), and the autophagy adaptor protein (p62) were also analyzed. Alizarin granule deposition and cellular ALP levels were measured following the induction of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) into osteogenesis.RESULTS: The study found that KD significantly impaired BMSCs' osteogenic differentiation, leading to bone loss. Icariin notably increased bone mass, stimulated osteogenesis, and reduced cancellous bone loss. In the KD + icariin group, measures such as bone tissue density (TMD), bone volume fraction (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N), and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) were significantly higher than in the KD group. Additionally, bone trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) was markedly lower in the KD + icariin group. Moreover, icariin increased OCN and ALP levels while suppressing PPAR-γ, TRAP, p62, and p-mTOR. In cellular studies, icariin encouraged osteogenic development in BMSCs under KD conditions.CONCLUSIONS: Icariin effectively counteracts bone thinning and improves bone microstructure. Its mechanism likely involves stimulating BMSCs osteogenic differentiation and inhibiting bone resorption, potentially through mTOR downregulation. These findings suggest icariin's potential as an alternative treatment for KD-induced bone loss.

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