Biol Trace Elem Res. 2024 Mar ;202(3):835-849. Epub 2023 Jun 10. PMID: 37300595
Fluoride-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Approaches for Its Intervention.
Fluoride is present everywhere in nature. The primary way that individuals are exposed to fluoride is by drinking water. It's interesting to note that while low fluoride levels are good for bone and tooth growth, prolonged fluoride exposure is bad for human health. Additionally, preclinical studies link oxidative stress, inflammation, and programmed cell death to fluoride toxicity. Moreover, mitochondria play a crucial role in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). On the other hand, little is known about fluoride's impact on mitophagy, biogenesis, and mitochondrial dynamics. These actions control the growth, composition, and organisation of mitochondria, and the purification of mitochondrial DNA helps to inhibit the production of reactive oxygen species and the release of cytochrome c, which enables cells to survive the effects of fluoride poisoning. In this review, we discuss the different pathways involved in mitochondrial toxicity and dysfunction induced by fluoride. For therapeutic approaches, we discussed different phytochemical and pharmacological agents which reduce the toxicity of fluoride via maintained by imbalanced cellular processes, mitochondrial dynamics, and scavenging the ROS.